Ukulungiswa kwe-aluminiyam

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Ngokuka "Izimvo eziKhokelayo ekomelezeni uThintelo kunye noLawulo lweNdawo yeNdawo yeNdawo yendalo" yeeProjekthi zoKwakha "eziPhezulu" ezikhutshwe nguMphathiswa we-Ecology kunye noKhuseleko lokuSingqongileyo kwiintsuku ezimbalwa ezidlulileyo, imboni yokulungisa i-aluminium ayiseyiyo yodidi lwe. "Izinto eziPhakamileyo ezimbini", kodwa i-aluminiyam ye-electrolytic isadweliswe phakathi kwazo. Ialuminiyam ineelebhile ezimbini: enye yi “aluminiyam eluhlaza”; enye "yimiphakamo emibini kunye nenkunzi enye". Ezi lebhile zimbini zinengcaciso echasene ngqo ne-aluminiyam. Ke, yeyiphi ingcaciso echanekileyo ye-aluminiyam?

“Amanqwanqwa amabini aphezulu kunye nenkunzi enye” kuthetha ukusetyenziswa kwamandla aphezulu, ungcoliseko oluphezulu kunye nemithombo yobutyebi. Le ngxelo yaqala ngo-2005, kwaye ekuqaleni yayijoliswe ukulawula ukuthunyelwa kwamanye amazwe amashishini anxulumeneyo kunye nokukhuthaza ukuphuculwa kwemizi-mveliso yasekhaya. Ukususela ngoko, kumaxwebhu omgaqo-nkqubo akhutshwe ngamasebe afanelekileyo, i-aluminium ye-electrolytic ihlelwe njenge "i-highs ezimbini kunye ne-capital capital" yamashishini. Kamva, le nkcazo yavela kwinkcazo yamashishini ezinto eziluhlaza kuquka imboni ye-aluminium.

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Ngokuphathelele kwingqikelelo “ye-asethi enye”, kwaziwa kakuhle ukuba i-aluminiyam sisinyithi esinobona vimba bomhlaba. Nangona oovimba bemithombo ye-aluminiyam kwilizwe lam benqabile, kumanyano lwanamhlanje lwezoqoqosho lwehlabathi, izibonelelo azisathinteli uphuhliso lweshishini lelizwe lam. Umqobo ophambili. Ngokweenkcukacha-manani ezingaphelelanga, ilizwe lam lineetoni ezimalunga ne-10 yeebhiliyoni zemithombo ye-bauxite phesheya kolwandle, kwaye amandla okuvelisa imigodi ye-equity afikelele kwi-90 yezigidi zeetoni ngonyaka. Phakathi kwezinto ezithengwa kumazwe angaphandle i-bauxite rhoqo ngonyaka, i-50% iphuma kwimigodi yezabelo zamazwe aphesheya kweelwandle yeenkampani zaseTshayina. , Ukukwazi ukuqinisekisa izibonelelo kuye kwaphuculwa kakhulu.

Ayisiyiyo loo nto kuphela, kodwa okona kubaluleke kakhulu, uphuhliso olukhawulezayo loshishino lwe-aluminiyam yelizwe lam alubonisi nje isoyikiso kwimithombo ye-bauxite yasekhaya, kodwa lugcina izibonelelo zophuhliso loshishino lwe-aluminium yesibini yelizwe lam. Kwiminyaka yakutshanje, amashumi ezigidi zeetoni ze-aluminiyam yokuqala kwilizwe lam ziye zalungiswa kwiimveliso ezahlukeneyo ze-aluminiyam minyaka le. Ngaphandle kwenxalenye encinci yokuthengisa ngaphandle, uninzi lwazo lusetyenziswa ekhaya. Ezi mveliso ze-aluminiyam ziye zafikelela kwixesha lokubuyisela emva kweminyaka engama-20-30 yokusetyenziswa, enokuqinisekisa ukuveliswa koshishino lwe-aluminiyam olukhoyo kunye nexesha elizayo. Ukuba akukho phuhliso loshishino oluphambili lwe-aluminium yasekhaya kunye nophuhliso lwemarike yesicelo se-aluminium, imboni ye-aluminium yesibini ayiyi kuba nantoni na ukuyipheka, okanye kuya kufuneka ukuba ingenise "inkunkuma yangaphandle", eya kunyanzeliswa ngabanye.

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Kuyabonakala ukuba ukulinganisa uphuhliso loshishino lwe-aluminiyam yelizwe lam ngokwembono yezibonelelo kusafuna imbono yehlabathi. Okwangoku, ingxabano "yenkunzi enye" ​​ichasene ngokwenene nophuhliso lwangoku lweshishini le-aluminium kwaye livulekele umbuzo.

Ngokumalunga neengxabano "ezimbini eziphezulu", imboni ye-aluminium njengeshishini elinzima alikwazi ukuphikiswa ngokupheleleyo, ngakumbi njenge-aluminium ye-electrolytic kwishishini eliphethe amandla. Kunokuthiwa akukho aluminium ngaphandle kombane. Nangona kunjalo, i-aluminiyam ye-electrolytic yikhonkco enye kuphela kwikhonkco loshishino lwe-aluminium. Kwicala lesicelo, izixhobo ze-aluminium zibe lukhetho lokuqala lwezinto zokugcina amandla kwiindawo ezahlukeneyo ngenxa yobunzima bokukhanya, ukuxhathisa ukubola, kunye nokuphinda kusetyenziswe kwakhona.

Kwiminyaka yakutshanje, ngokusungulwa kunye nokuphuculwa kweteknoloji ye-aluminiyam ye-electrolytic kunye nobuchwepheshe belizwe lam, izikhombisi zokonga umbane kunye nokunciphisa ukukhutshwa kwemveliso ye-aluminiyam yokuqala azisafani nezo zeminyaka engaphezu kweshumi eyadlulayo. Ngo-2020, ukusetyenziswa kombane ngetoni ye-aluminiyam ye-electrolytic kwilizwe lam kuya kuba ngaphantsi kwe-13,543 kWh, ukuncipha malunga ne-8% xa kuthelekiswa no-2005. Isalathiso sokusetyenziswa kwamandla sibe kwinqanaba eliphezulu kwihlabathi iminyaka emininzi. Ngokumalunga nokukhutshwa kwe-greenhouse, ngo-2019, ukukhutshwa kweyunithi yeegesi ze-greenhouse ezisetyenziswe ngumbane kwinkqubo ye-aluminium electrolysis kwilizwe lam yayiyi-12.8, ukuncipha kwe-24% xa kuthelekiswa no-2006, kwaye izinga lokuhla lihamba phambili kwihlabathi.

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Kwangaxeshanye, izinga lokurisayikilishwa kwemathiriyeli ye-aluminiyam inokufikelela ngaphezu kwe-95%, kwaye inokuphinda isetyenziswe amaxesha amaninzi. Nangona kunjalo, ukusetyenziswa kwamandla kunye neegesi ze-greenhouse zemveliso ye-aluminiyam esetyenzisiweyo malunga ne-5% kuphela ye-aluminiyam yokuqala. Ke ngoko, ikwabizwa ngokuba "ziimveliso zokugcina amandla" kunye "neBhanki yaMandla" nodumo.

Eyona nto idida nangakumbi kukuba igesi yegreenhouse kushishino lwealuminiyam ibangelwa ubukhulu becala ngamandla ashushu, kwaye amandla obushushu yeyona ndlela yelizwe lam yokuvelisa umbane, ebalelwa ngaphezu kwe-70% yombane welizwe uwonke. Oku ngokucacileyo sisiphumo sokuphuculwa kwemizi-mveliso kunye nohlengahlengiso lwesakhiwo kwishishini lamandla. Umbuzo, kutheni uvumela imboni ye-aluminium inakekele?

Ngethamsanqa, ngokuqhubela phambili kwetekhnoloji yogcino lwamandla, amandla avuselelekayo anjengehydrogen, ilanga, umoya, kunye nombane wamanzi aya kusetyenziswa ngokubanzi kwimveliso yemizi-mveliso. Kule mihla, amandla enyukliya elizwe lam aphinde aqaliswe emva kweminyaka elishumi yokunqunyanyiswa. Kwixesha elizayo, imithombo yamandla ekhabhoni ephantsi kakhulu iya kufumaneka ukuze isetyenziswe.

Nangona isalathiso sokusetyenziswa kwamandla e-aluminiyam ye-electrolytic kwi-high-stream ye-aluminium industry ayinakungahoywa, eyona nto ibaluleke kakhulu kukuba kwisicelo esilandelayo kunye nokulungiswa kweemveliso ze-aluminium, kubonisa ngakumbi iimpawu zemizi-mveliso ye-high-tech kunye ne-refined processing, hayi ngezinye izixhobo kuphela. Indima yokutshintshwa, kwaye ibonise umphumo wayo omangalisayo wokugcina amandla ohlaza kwiinkalo ezininzi.

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Ukususela kwi-2012, ekhokelwa yi-China Nonferrous Metals Industry Association, inyathelo elithi "Ukomeleza iPropaganda yeAluminium eluhlaza kunye nokukhuthaza ukusetyenziswa kwe-Aluminium" sele iqaliswe ngokusemthethweni kwaye yakhupha "i-aluminium eluhlaza" kwisibhengezo kuluntu lonke. Emva kweminyaka eyi-9 yophuhliso, "i-aluminium eluhlaza" ithandwa ngabathengi. Izinto ze-aluminium ziye zaba yinto entsha yokuqhubela phambili kunye neyona nto iphambili yokugcina amandla, ukunciphisa ukukhutshwa, ukuguqulwa kunye nokuphucula, kunye nophuhliso lwekhabhoni ephantsi kwezothutho, ukwakhiwa kunye nezinye iindawo.

Ngokwezibalo ezifanelekileyo, ngokwemiqathango yemoto ekhaphukhaphu, i-alloy ye-aluminium ingasetyenziswa kwisithuthi esingaphezu kwe-500kg, enokunciphisa ubunzima besithuthi ngama-40%, kwaye yonke i-10% yokunciphisa ubunzima besithuthi inokusindisa malunga ne-40% yemoto. I-3.5% ~ 6%, nganye ilitha e-1 yokusetyenziswa kwamafutha ingancitshiswa, kwaye i-2.33 kg ye-carbon dioxide ekhutshwayo ingancitshiswa. Ingabonwa ukuba ialluminiyam ialloy ineengenelo ezicacileyo ekwandiseni ukukhutshwa kwekhabhoni ephantsi kwindawo yothutho lwemoto. Kwintsimi yolwakhiwo, i-stock yangoku ye-aluminium formwork kwilizwe lam ifikelele kwi-80 yezigidi zeemitha zeemitha, kunye nesabelo semarike ye-30% kwimarike yendawo yokuhlala ephezulu kunye nephezulu. Ukukhula ngokukhawuleza kwe-aluminium formwork ihlangabezana neemfuno zokukhuselwa okuluhlaza kunye nokusingqongileyo kwishishini lokwakha kunye nokugcina iinkuni ezininzi. Kwintsimi yempahla yasekhaya, ifenitshala ye-aluminium eluhlaza kunye nokusingqongileyo ithathwa kakhulu yimarike. Kwintsimi ye-aerospace, nokuba yinqwelomoya enkulu yasekhaya okanye ukwakhiwa kwangoku kunye nokusebenza kwesikhululo sendawo yelizwe lam, akukho namnye kubo onokukwenza ngaphandle komnikelo we-aluminium. Izixhobo ze-aluminiyam nazo ziyimfuneko ekukhuthazeni uphuhliso olukhawulezayo lothutho lukaloliwe oluhamba ngesantya esiphezulu selizwe lam. Kwiinkalo ezininzi zezicelo ezifana namandla ombane kunye nokwakhiwa kwedolophu, kuye kwakho ukunyuka kokutshintshwa kwe-aluminiyam ngobhedu, i-aluminiyam ngentsimbi, kunye ne-aluminiyam ngomthi.

Iinyaniso zithetha ngaphezu kwamazwi. Iqhutywa kukukhula okukhawulezileyo kwemarike yemfuno, imveliso ye-aluminiyam yelizwe lam inyuke ukusuka kwi-7.81 yezigidi zeetoni ngo-2005 ukuya kwi-37.08 yezigidi zeetoni ngo-2020. Ukuba akukho mfuno Ngale nkxaso enzima, akunakwenzeka ukuqhuba ukukhawuleza okunjalo. Ngaphandle kophuhliso oluzinzileyo lweshishini le-aluminiyam ye-electrolytic, kuya kuba nzima kwezinye iindawo zesicelo ukuba zibe nexabiso eliphantsi, iziqinisekiso zezinto ezigcina amandla aphezulu.

Okwangoku, ingxabano "yeziphakamileyo ezimbini kunye nenkunzi enye" ​​ithintele kakhulu idumela loshishino lwe-aluminium. Kuyathenjwa ukuba lonke uluntu luya kusekelwa ekuqwalaselweni kwekhonkco leshishini le-aluminium yonke kunye nomjikelo wobomi bonke, ukulungisa ukuqonda kwicala elinye loshishino lwe-aluminium, kwaye uqaphele "i-aluminium eluhlaza". Iimpawu ezigqwesileyo, zikhuthaza uphuhliso olukumgangatho ophezulu woshishino lwe-aluminiyam yelizwe lam.

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Ixesha lokuposa: Jun-30-2021